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  名 称:天美55甜瓜种子

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详细介绍:

2020年天美55甜瓜品种生产表现

1.1‘天美55是以稳定自交系‘E-181为母本、纯化自交系‘E-158为父本选育而成的薄皮甜瓜杂交1代新品种。该品种春季大棚栽培果实发育期28 d左右,全生育期88 d左右。植株长势旺盛,综合抗性突出,孙蔓结果为主。果实筒形,单果质量650 g,果长18 cm,宽10 cm,果肉厚度3.0 cm。果皮白色,果肉白色,可溶性固形物含量(w,后同)15%,肉质酥脆,香味浓郁,口感好,667 m2产量3 500 kg以上,适合华北、西北等地区春季保护地和露地栽培。2018年通过中华人民共和国农业农村部品种登记。


2.1 亲本来源及特征特性


2.1.1 母本的选育及特性 母本‘E-181是2008年利用山东地区农家品种‘银瓜經6代选育的纯自交系,早熟,全生育期88 d,果实发育期28 d。果皮白色,果肉白色,中心可溶性固形物含量12%,单果质量700 g,果形指数2.37,棒形,具有早熟、肉质酥脆的特点。


2.1.2 父本的选育及特性 父本‘E-158是2008年利用日本品种与河南地方品种杂交后,经6代自交纯化后,选用2个优良株系混选后再自交纯化的稳定株系。植株长势较旺,以孙蔓结果为主,中熟,全生育期90 d,果实发育期约30 d,果实正梨形,果皮白色,成熟后有黄晕,单果质量500 g左右。果肉白色,中心可溶性固形物含量16.0%以上,肉质脆,抗性强。


2.2 选育经过


2011年春季用‘E-181作母本,用‘永甜‘白沙蜜‘E-158‘E-159‘E-161等9个白皮甜瓜品种作父本配制组合,秋季进行组合筛选试验,根据果实性状及田间表现综合筛选,‘E-181×E-158和‘E-181×E-1612个组合表现突出,初步入选。2012春季继续试种,‘E-181×E-158在产量、口感、抗病性表现优良,为中选组合。2012年秋季、2013年春季以‘青县羊角脆为对照进行品种比较试验,该品种产量、口感、抗性等性状均优于对照。2014—2015年进行多点区域试验,2016年进行生产试验,该品种表现突出,定名为‘天美55。2018年通过中华人民共和国农业农村部品种登记,品种登记号:GPD甜瓜(2018)120720。


3 试验结果


3.1 组合筛选试验


2012年用32个组合初选保留选配的9个杂交组合进行再一次组合筛选试验。以‘青县羊角脆为对照品种,‘E-181×E-158组合667 m2产量比对照增产20.3%,中心可溶性固形物含量比对照提高3.7%,且该组合抗性好于对照。


3.2 品种比较试验


2012年秋季、2013年春季连续2 a(年)在天津农业科学院武清创新基地三连栋塑料大棚内进行品种比较试验,小区面积5.4 m2,每小区种植16株,3次重復,田间随机区组排列,株行距40 cm×80 cm,以‘青县羊角脆为对照品种。2012年秋季7月20日播种,7月31日定植;2013年春季3月1日播种,3月30日定植,均采用穴盘育苗。2次品种比较试验表明(表1),‘天美55果实发育期平均为27 d,比对照少3 d;单瓜质量0.62 kg,平均小区产量为26.1 kg,较对照提高20.5%,增产效果明显;可溶性固形物含量15.5%,比对照高2.9个百分点。果皮白色,成熟后微有黄晕,果肉白色,筒形,果肉厚,种腔小,肉质脆,香味浓郁。


3.3 区域试验


2014—2015年春季在天津市宝坻区石辛庄、河北青县、山东莘县、青州等地冷棚中进行多点区域试验,每个区域设3次重复,以‘青县羊角脆为对照,试验结果(表2)显示,‘天美55在4个区域产量均高于对照,平均增产20.4%;平均单瓜质量0.62 kg,较对照高0.1 kg;果实发育期平均为27.6 d,比对照短2.4 d;可溶性固形物含量平均15.7%,比对照高3.0个百分点。


3.4 生产试验


2016年春季在河北青县、山东莘县、青州等地进行生产试验,以‘青县羊角脆为对照,小区面积32 m2,定植100株,不设重复。河北青县和山东青州为冷棚种植,山东莘县为暖棚种植,均为吊蔓栽培,单蔓整枝,定植密度为0.4 m×0.8 m。试验结果(表3)显示,‘天美55在3个种植点产量均高于对照,平均增产为21.6%;平均单瓜质量0.62 kg,较对照增加0.11 kg;果实发育期平均为28.0 d,比对照短3.6 d;可溶性固形物含量平均为15.4%,比对照高3.0个百分点。‘天美55在低温下坐果整齐,果形周正,筒形,田间表现综合抗性较对照强。



4 品种特征特性


早熟杂交1代薄皮甜瓜新品种。植株长势旺盛,田间表现综合抗性较好,以孙蔓结果为主。果实发育期27 d,果实筒形,单果质量650 g,果长18 cm,果宽10 cm,果肉厚度3.0 cm。果实筒形,果形指数1.8,果皮白色,果实成熟后有黄晕,果肉白色,可溶性固形物含量15%,肉质酥脆,香味浓郁,口感好。具有果形漂亮、早熟、高糖、品质佳、坐果整齐度好,抗性强等特点,667 m2产量3 500 kg以上(见封面、彩插4)。


5 栽培技术要点


‘天美55适宜于保护地和露地栽培。栽培要点如下:


(1)种子处理:种子采用温汤浸种。

(2)施肥:667 m2施入充分腐熟的鸡粪5000 kg(或土粪5 000 kg)+复合肥30 kg作基肥;667 m2再加施磷酸二胺30 kg、硫酸钾20 kg作为追肥。

(3)定植密度:保护地单蔓整枝667 m2保苗2000~2300株;露地采用2~4蔓整枝667 m2栽1200株。

(4)植株调整:保护地吊蔓栽培时,主蔓4片真叶时摘心,可单蔓或双蔓整枝。单蔓整枝:主蔓摘心后选留1条长势健壮的侧蔓。以下的侧枝及时摘除,在所留侧枝5~9片叶发出的孙蔓上选留3~4瓜作为第1茬瓜,留瓜孙蔓留2片叶摘心。10~20片叶发出的侧枝要打掉,植株长势弱时,此处侧枝可保留2片叶摘心。第1茬瓜基本定个后,20~22片叶的孙蔓可再留瓜2~3个,顶部的侧枝打掉,但每株要保留2~3个生长点,维持植株长势,防止植株早衰。双蔓整枝:主蔓摘心后选留2条长势健壮一致的侧蔓。分别在2条蔓6~10节上发出的孙蔓各留2~3个瓜。注意2条蔓留瓜的节位和幼瓜的大小要一致,否则会导致大吃小现象。此后,根据植株长势可决定是否留二茬果。无论单蔓还是双蔓,每株要留3~4个长势一致,大小均匀的瓜才能保证产量。

(5)水肥调控:果实乒乓球大时,及时浇膨果水和追肥,667m2追肥20 kg硝酸钾或高钾水溶肥。

(6)保证通风透光,降低湿度,预防病害的发生。

(7)采收前7 d禁止浇水,避免果实糖度的降低;果实成熟时应及时采收,清晨采收果实品质最佳。



1.1 'Tianmei 55' is a new thin skinned muskmelon F1 hybrid bred from stable inbred line 'e-181' and purified inbred line 'E-158' as male parent. The fruit development period is about 28 days and the whole growth period is about 88 days. The plant grows vigorously, and the comprehensive resistance is outstanding, and the sun vine bears fruit mainly. The fruit is cylindrical, with a single fruit weight of 650 g, a fruit length of 18 cm, a width of 10 cm, and a pulp thickness of 3.0 cm. It has white peel, white flesh, 15% soluble solids content (W, the same later), crisp meat, rich flavor and good taste. The yield of 667 M2 is more than 3500 kg, which is suitable for protected and open cultivation in North China and Northwest China in spring. In 2018, it was registered by the Ministry of agriculture and rural areas of the people's Republic of China.


2.1 source and characteristics of parents


2.1.1 selection and characteristics of female parent 'e-181' is a pure inbred line bred by six generations of Shandong Agricultural Variety 'YINGUA' in 2008. It is early maturing, the whole growth period is 88 days, and the fruit development period is 28 days. The peel is white, the flesh is white, the content of soluble solids in the center is 12%, the weight of single fruit is 700 g, the fruit shape index is 2.37, and the fruit is rod-shaped, which has the characteristics of early maturity and crisp flesh.


2.1.2 breeding and characteristics of male parent 'E-158' is a stable line after 6 generations of self purification after crossing Japanese varieties with Henan local varieties in 2008. The growth of the plant is vigorous, and the main fruit is the sun vine. The whole growth period is 90 days and the fruit development period is about 30 days. The fruit is pear shaped with white peel and yellow halo after maturity. The single fruit weight is about 500 g. The flesh is white, and the soluble solids content in the center is more than 16.0%. The flesh is crisp and has strong resistance.


2.2 breeding proces


In the spring of 2011, 'e-181 was used as female parent, and nine white skin melon varieties such as' Yongtian' baishami 'E-158' e-159 'e-161 were used as male parents. The combination screening test was conducted in autumn. According to the fruit characteristics and field performance, the combination of' e-181 × E-158 'and' e-181 × e-1612 combinations were selected preliminarily. "E-181 × E-158 is a medium selection combination because of its excellent performance in yield, taste and disease resistance. 'Qingxian yangjiaocui' was used as the control in autumn 2012 and spring 2013. The yield, taste and resistance of the variety were better than those of the control. From 2015 to 2015, Tianmei was selected as the regional production site, and its production performance was outstanding. In 2018, it passed the variety registration of the Ministry of agriculture and rural areas of the people's Republic of China, variety registration number: GPD melon (2018) 120720.


3 test results

3.1 combination screening test

In 2012, 32 combinations were selected, and 9 cross combinations were reserved for further selection. Taking 'Qingxian yangjiaocui' as the control variety, the yield of 667 m2 of 'e-181 × E-158 combination was 20.3% higher than that of the control, and the central soluble solid content was 3.7% higher than that of the control, and the resistance of the combination was better than that of the control.

3.2 variety comparison test

In the autumn of 2012 and the spring of 2013, the variety comparison experiment was carried out in the three span plastic greenhouse of Wuqing innovation base of Tianjin Academy of Agricultural Sciences for 2 years. The plot area was 5.4 m2, and 16 plants were planted in each plot, with 3 replicates. The field was randomly arranged in groups with plant row spacing of 40 cm × 80 cm. The control variety was' yangjiaocui of Qingxian County '. The seeds were sown on July 20 and planted on July 31 in autumn 2012, and sowed on March 1 and March 30 in spring 2013. The results showed that the average fruit development period of 'Tianmei 55' was 27 days, 3 days less than that of the control; the weight of single melon was 0.62 kg, and the average plot yield was 26.1 kg, which was 20.5% higher than that of the control, and the soluble solid content was 15.5%, 2.9% higher than the control. It has white peel, slight yellow halo after ripening, white pulp, barrel shape, thick pulp, small seed cavity, crisp flesh and rich flavor.

3.3 regional test

In the spring of 2014-2015, a multi-point regional experiment was conducted in Shixinzhuang, Qingxian, Shenxian, and Qingzhou of Tianjin in spring 2014-2015. Three replicates were set in each region. The results of the experiment (Table 2) showed that the yield of Tianmei 55 was higher than that of the control, with an average increase of 20.4%; the average weight of single melon was 0.62 kg, 0.1 kg higher than that of the control; The average fruit development period was 27.6 days, 2.4 days shorter than the control, and the average soluble solid content was 15.7%, 3.0 percentage points higher than the control.

3.4 production test

In the spring of 2016, the production experiment was conducted in Qingxian County, Shenxian County, Qingzhou County, Shandong Province. The plot area was 32 m2, and 100 plants were planted without repetition. Qingxian County in Hebei Province and Qingzhou City in Shandong Province were planted in cold shed, while those in Shenxian County in Shandong Province were planted in warm shed. The planting density was 0.4 m × 0.8 M. The results of the experiment (Table 3) showed that the yield of Tianmei 55 was higher than that of the control, with an average increase of 21.6%; the average weight of single melon was 0.62 kg, increased by 0.11 kg; the average fruit development period was 28.0 days, 3.6 days shorter than the control; the average soluble solid content was 15.4%, 3.0 percentage points higher than the control. "Tianmei 55 has regular fruit setting, round shape and tubular shape under low temperature. The comprehensive resistance of Tianmei 55 is stronger than that of the control.

Characteristics of 4 varieties

A new early maturing hybrid melon variety with thin skin was developed. The plant grew vigorously and showed good comprehensive resistance in the field. The fruit development period is 27 days, the fruit is cylindrical, the weight of single fruit is 650 g, the fruit length is 18 cm, the fruit width is 10 cm, and the pulp thickness is 3.0 cm. The fruit is cylindrical with shape index of 1.8, white peel, yellow halo after ripening, white flesh, 15% soluble solids content, crisp flesh, rich flavor and good taste. It has the characteristics of beautiful fruit shape, early maturity, high sugar, good quality, good fruit setting uniformity and strong resistance. The yield of 667 M2 is more than 3500 kg (see cover and color plug 4).

5. Key points of cultivation techniques

"Tianmei 55 is suitable for protected and open cultivation. The main cultivation points are as follows:

(1) Seed treatment: the seeds were soaked in warm soup.

(2) Fertilization: 5000 kg of fully decomposed chicken manure (or 5000 kg of soil manure) + 30 kg of compound fertilizer were applied as base fertilizer for 667 m2, and 30 kg of diamine phosphate and 20 kg of potassium sulfate were applied as topdressing.

(3) Planting density: single vine pruning 667 m2 in protected field and 2000-2300 seedlings in protected field; 1200 plants planted in open field with 2-4 vine pruning 667 m2.

(4) Plant adjustment: when hanging vine cultivation in protected field, pick the heart when the main vine has 4 true leaves, and prune single vine or double vine. Single vine pruning: select a strong side vine after the main vine is picked off. The following lateral branches should be removed in time, and 3-4 melons should be selected as the first crop of melon on the sun vine with 5-9 leaves left, and 2 leaves should be left for picking the heart of the sun vine. The lateral branches from 10 to 20 leaves should be removed. When the plant growth is weak, two leaves can be retained here to pick off the heart. After the first crop of melon is basically fixed, 2-3 melons can be left in the sun vine with 20-22 leaves, and the lateral branches at the top shall be removed. However, 2-3 growth points shall be reserved for each plant to maintain the plant growth and prevent the plant from premature aging. Double vine pruning: after the main vine is pinched, two side vines with strong and consistent growth are selected. 2-3 melons were left on the 6-10 nodes of Two Vines respectively. Note that the node position of the two vines and the size of the young melon should be consistent, otherwise it will lead to the phenomenon of big eating small. After that, we can decide whether to keep the second crop of fruit according to the plant growth. No matter single vine or double vine, each plant should keep 3-4 melons with the same growth trend and uniform size to ensure the yield.

(5) Water and fertilizer control: when the fruit table tennis ball is large, timely water and topdressing, 667m2 topdressing 20 kg potassium nitrate or high potassium water-soluble fertilizer.

(6) Ensure ventilation and light transmission, reduce humidity and prevent diseases.

(7) It is forbidden to water 7 days before harvest to avoid the decrease of sugar content of fruit; the fruit should be harvested in time when it matures, and the fruit quality is the best in the morning.










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